Wiesmann TEL: 205-934-9736; FAX: 205-975-1952, Principal Investigator: G. Allan Johnson, Ph.D. TEL: 919-684-7755; FAX: 919-684-7122, Principal Investigator: Chien Ho, Ph.D. TEL: 412-268-3395; FAX: 412-268-7083, Principal Investigator: Kamil Ugurbil, Ph.D. TEL: 612-626-2001; FAX: 612-626-626-2004, Principal Investigator: John S. Leigh, Ph.D. TEL: 215-898-9357; FAX: 215-573-2113, E-mail: email@example.com; Website: www.mmrrcc.upenn.edu, Principal Investigator: Robert G. Griffin, Ph.D. TEL: 617-253-5597; FAX: 617-253-5405, Principal Investigator: John L. Markley, Ph.D. TEL: 608-263-9349; FAX: 608-262-3759, Principal Investigator: Craig R. Malloy, M.D.
Behar Schousboe SM I Ibanez
Raman spectra are acquired quickly within seconds. 1995 ; Lohmeier-Vogel et al. The isolated perfused heart was one of the first biological systems to be studied in detail using 31 P-NMR spectroscopy ( Ackerman et al.
. Barker Hardin DD R G SN As a result, there will be an escalating need to evaluate the relation between alterations in gene and protein expression with cellular function. J . Tada
However, intrinsic difficulties remain in making the agents nontoxic and particularly in the delivery of the agent. JC The stronger the magnetic field, B 0 , the more nuclei on average that align with this magnetic field. Y Magee
MW Despite this potential handicap, 13 C-NMR spectroscopy has been used to investigate metabolism in cells and tissues for almost as long as 31 P-NMR spectroscopy. IJ 1997 ; Ugurbil et al. M T-C Although the widespread use of such specialized instruments is limited, they will provide a platform for improving our understanding of the fundamental biophysical processes that underlie the characteristics of NMR signals in biological systems.
1977 ; Hollis et al.
As with spectroscopy, the range of studies used for MRI is very large. However, the NMR-sensitive isotope of carbon, 13 C, represents only 1.1% of the carbon atoms that occur in nature. ( Glickson Wolkowicz . JS . C Jr (K) Live image of a normal rat brain, with (L) a diffusion-weighted image after inducement of a stroke, which shows hyperintense region on the left. At the time of this writing, the research goal is to identify these structures.
The examples cited above have focused on the use of isolated organs or small animals; however, NMR imaging and spectroscopy may have even greater impact in studies on larger animals. DL Glickson
M Balschi Blackband Despite these difficulties, the MR signal can be made sensitive to water diffusion. Murphy Simaroj However, instead of determining the time course of enrichment, the method is based on analyzing the complex line-splitting pattern of 13 C-glutamate resonances observed in high-resolution 13 C-NMR spectra of tissue or cell extracts. highly specific like a chemical fingerprint of a material. 1993 ); and on tissues and organs in vivo, such as the heart, brain, liver, skeletal muscle, and tumors ( Barker et al. R
1997, 1999 ). No separation is required. Barucci Greyson 1999, 2000 ; Kinoshita et al. advantages and disadvantages of emission spectroscopy, Post Comments . RL 1999 ). Vogel
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