The ingot has a very small level of porosity, which is eliminated in the forging and rolling process. Especially if you are cleaning fish or dealing with raw meat. Each was given the same heat treatment of 2140°F austenitize, plate quench, cryo, and 365°F temper. Below shows micrographs of Vanadis 4 Extra and Vanadis 4 where you can see the carbide size difference. Chemische Zusammensetzung (Anhaltswerte in %) / Chemical composition … A layer of conductive slag on the liquid steel surface allows the electrodes to heat the steel and offers some protection from the atmosphere.
You may notice that the carbide size is more different between M390 and Vanadis 4 Extra than between 4V and Vanadis 4 Extra. Welcome to the #knifecommunity – Nitch Designs. Below shows their values for inclusions with 1st gen “PM”, 2nd gen “ESH” and whatever Dvalin is: When Bohler-Uddeholm built their plant around 1999 they used a very similar process but instead of argon gas stirring they used electromagnetic stirring which is somewhat superior to argon stirring. For example, Uddeholm Vanadis 4 Extra and Crucible CPM-4V are basically identical steels and the carbide size is also roughly identical: And in looking at Bohler M390 and Crucible 20CV, which also have identical composition, the carbide size is very similar: You may notice that the carbide size is more different between M390 and Vanadis 4 Extra than between 4V and Vanadis 4 Extra. Below I have shown the measured P, S, and O: The P and S of each steel is very similar, in fact Uddeholm Elmax has the highest levels of both of those elements. 16-19, 2006. “PM Tool Materials: An Optimised PM Produced Cold Work Tool Steel.” In European Congress and Exhibition on Powder Metallurgy.
We want the content of each of those elements to be as low as possible. I don’t know what reticulated refractory filters are, unfortunately. S90V seems a bit 'toothier' to me, maybe because the carbides are larger? So when Bohler-Uddeholm is claiming superior cleanliness and reduced inclusions they are apparently not referring to phosphorous and sulfur. One major difference between M390 and Vanadis 4 Extra is that M390 has a large volume of chromium carbides while Vanadis 4 Extra is exclusively vanadium carbide after heat treatment. Home > Knives > Steels. M390 (Bohler-Uddeholm) - Bohler-Uddeholm martensitic Chromium steel, made using their 3rd generation PM process. I have previously written about carbide size differences in this article on micrographs. On top of the liquid steel is where a layer of “slag” is formed of various oxides and other impurities, and we would like to avoid any slag getting into the final solidified product. The small difference in hardness may be the result of the nitrogen difference or possibly just variation between heat treatments or composition between heats of steel. In other words, the steel composition is more important for carbide size than the production process. For example, see this data on oxide inclusions from Bohler-Uddeholm intended to demonstrate the superiority of their product: They counted inclusions that were larger than 11 microns, and even in the “bad” example of Crucible steel they still measured less than one inclusion of such a size per square centimeter, which is a relatively large area in microstructure terms. 3rd Generation Powder Metallurgy Technology. How easy is it to dis/reassemble the CBBL?
In that case the toughness was essentially identical, the small difference is probably just due to experimental variability. European PM Conference Proceedings, vol. The most common types of inclusions in steel are sulfides (compounds of sulfur) and oxides (compounds of oxygen). precipitaion hardening steel, Blades & Shafts for Turbines and Compressors, Wellhead, X-mas trees & Manifolds (incl. It is Bohler's high end steel. Based on @Bohler communication the M390 steel is composed of: 1.9% of Carbon: Carbon is essential in all blades and knives, it gives more toughness, durability to the blade/knife, but the carbon as a component is susceptible to corrosion. have better toughness for a given level of wear resistance. M390 is produced according to a powder metallurgical process. Erasteel, maker of powder metallurgy ASP-series of steels and RWL34, produced a new powder metallurgy facility in the early 1990s which was developed to have a larger tundish. I don't have a Contego to put up against my new Manix for comparison. A large tundish alone does not solve all of the problems because the steel can solidify while it sits in the tundish waiting to be atomized into powder. Select steels from the Interactive Knife Steel Composition Chart. Chromium carbides (M7C3 and M23C6) and molybdenum/tungsten carbides (M6C) coarsen the fastest, and vanadium carbides (MC) coarsen much more slowly. In the original process, the steel is poured into the tundish several times to make a whole batch of powder. “cold work steel alloy for the manufacture of parts by powder metallurgy.” U.S. Patent 6,773,482, issued August 10, 2004. We tested both longitudinal and transverse specimens because transverse specimens are typically lower in toughness and may reveal superiority in carbide size, inclusions, or processing. Something also to consider would be ease of cleaning the knife, particularly the pivot and locking mechanism. Very interesting insight into pm steels… one question, the appearance of 20cv and m390 microgaphs… It looks like there are a larger amount of smaller carbides as well as the ones that are the maximum size. Bohler M390, CTS-204P, and CPM-20CV are all essentially the same steel and sport a near identical composition. This higher Co and W content may mean than Bohler-Uddeholm is using some percentage of recycled high speed steels that Carpenter and Crucible are avoiding. Erasteel and Bohler-Uddeholm have newer powder metallurgy production facilities that allow a reduction in oxygen content of steel. Powder metallurgy is reported to lead to less detrimental effects of MnS, and the poor machinability of high wear resistance PM steels means that sometimes the tradeoff is worth it. Your email address will not be published. And Vancron Superclean is a replacement of Vancron 40 with reduced Mo to eliminate Mo carbides. M390_Diagramm5.jpg.
Erasteel around 2006 began advertising a further reduction in inclusion content through a process called “Dvalin” but very unhelpfully they never say what that process is, just that it exists and makes the steel better. Original Vanadis 4 with larger chromium carbides (grey), Vanadis 4 Extra with a more uniform carbide size lacking in chromium carbides. On an unrelated note, the 1000°F temper of 4V led to lower toughness than the 400°F temper, which was also found with CPM CruWear/Z-Wear. For generations the name BÖHLER has been synonymous worldwide with top quality specialty steels. Bohler-Uddeholm K390 Knife Steel Composition Analysis Graph, Equivalents And Overview Version 4.36. M390 / CPM 20CV is a PM stainless steel that offers good wear resistance with excellent corrosion resistance through the use of high chromium and vanadium content. Axxxs (KR) Color: Red Fast delivery, great support, thanks! They also use argon gas stirring to maintain a consistent temperature. There appears to be a greater density of inclusions in the Bohler-Uddeholm steels, however, which makes sense given the previous diagram where they emphasized the number of relatively large oxides. So yes you answered the question to an extent.
M390_Diagramm5.jpg. Due to its alloying concept this steel offers extremely high wear resistance and high corrosion resistance – the perfect combination for best application properties. To do statistical analysis on microstructure features it would take a lot of images. This powdered steel is incredibly tough, hard wearing and corrosion resistant, as well as being great at keeping an edge. FYI: Knifeworks accepting pre-orders for S90V Manix XL Tuesday.... http://zknives.com/knives/steels/st...20CP, 20CV, M390, S90V&ni=1541,,,,&hrn=1&gm=0, (You must log in or sign up to reply here. In comparisons between various products there does not seem to be much difference in carbide size between different companies. With significant amounts of Chromium, Molybdenum, Vanadium, and Tungsten, these steels are 100% ready for action. There are various methods used in an attempt to limit the oxide and sulfide content of steel though it is impossible to reduce it to zero. “Multicomponent diffusional reactions in tool steels: Experiment and Theory.” PhD diss., KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. M390 Made using Bohler's third generation powder metallurgy process. Due to its alloying concept this steel offers extremely high wear resistance and high corrosion resistance – the perfect combination for best application properties. Iron sulfides melt at relatively low temperature, leading to liquid sulfides at forging temperatures, which makes hot rolling steel likely to fail.
The impurity and inclusion content is not going to affect edge retention, after all. The oxygen content was confirmed to be reduced in Bohler-Uddeholm steels relative to Crucible and Carpenter, but a resulting reduction in toughness was not seen in testing. There is an email response from a Carpenter employee on the Spyderco forum  that provides some information on their powder metallurgy process. The 0.11% in Elmax may also be the result of a small intentional addition. Contact Bohler UK about anything related to our products and services and we will get back to you.
In that email he said that Carpenter uses “reticulated refractory filters” to achieve a finer powder size than Bohler-Uddeholm. Maybe someone else could chime in on that point. Effect of Composition and Carbide Type. As described earlier in this article, impurities phosphorous (P), sulfur (S), and oxygen (O), are the primary elements we look at in seeing how “clean” a steel is. ). Important synergistic effects, not yet fully defined, can also occur when combinations are used in place of single elements.
You can read about different carbide types in this article. Therefore in our testing we did not find better toughness of Bohler-Uddeholm steels than Crucible steels. Rather than pouring liquid steel into a mold and letting it slowly cool, the liquid is passed through a gas spray which rapidly solidifies small particles, creating a steel powder. Sulfides are usually present in the form of manganese sulfide, as manganese is added intentionally to avoid iron sulfides. Another impurity in steel apart from O and S is phosphorous (P), though it is not typically in the form of an inclusion so it is somewhat separate from the other two elements. Highly innovative specialists who not only demand high-performance materials, but also need intelligent solutions that expand the limits of what is possible. 03 Mar … So I am showing two images from each steel to get a slightly better feel of the inclusions, at the lowest magnification the microscope had: Interestingly I did not see any MnS elongated in the rolling direction, perhaps the powder metallurgy process makes them small enough that they are not as noticeable as in conventional steels. There is a lot of carbide in 20CV/M390, yes. Carpenter had the highest oxygen we tested, at least in the case of 204P. working hardness up to 62HRC. I think the superior toughness of 4V is due to the minor differences in composition leading to lower “carbon in solution” rather than superior processing technology by either company. Does any of this matter then? First the way Böhler produces its M390. M390 did offer similar toughness to the cold-work tool steels like K390 with a similar carbide volume, but M398 has significantly lower toughness than the similar carbide volume S290.
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