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what is molybdenum used for

", "Splice-specific Functions of Gephyrin in Molybdenum Cofactor Biosynthesis", "Recent studies of the copper-molybdenum antagonism", "Treatment of Wilson disease with ammonium tetrathiomolybdate: III. Molybdenum is the first of the transition metals to have an extensive sulfur chemistry shown, for example, having as its principal ore molybdenum disulfide, MoS 2, its binding by sulfur ligands in molybdenum containing enzymes, application of MoS 2 as an important industrial catalyst, and formation of many sulfur complexes some of which are used as soluble lubricating oil additives. [15], Molybdenum-98 is the most abundant isotope, comprising 24.14% of all molybdenum. [42], Molybdenum is also valued in steel alloys for its high corrosion resistance and weldability.

About 23% of this material is used to make molybdenum grade stainless steel, while constructional steel, tool and high speed steel and cast iron, taken together use an additional 56%. Molybdenum is one of the essential trace elements of the human body and is also a component of many enzymes. Corrosion inhibiting pigments, primarily zinc molybdate, but also molybdates of calcium and strontium, are used commercially in paints.

In the case of molybdenum, the UL is 2000 μg/day. [93], A congenital molybdenum cofactor deficiency disease, seen in infants, is an inability to synthesize molybdenum cofactor, the heterocyclic molecule discussed above that binds molybdenum at the active site in all known human enzymes that use molybdenum. Molybdenum coated soda lime glass is used in CIGS (, This page was last edited on 16 October 2020, at 14:52.

[81] People severely deficient in molybdenum have poorly functioning sulfite oxidase and are prone to toxic reactions to sulfites in foods.

It can cut a variety of steels and hard alloys. [87][88] Sodium tungstate is a competitive inhibitor of molybdenum. Of the synthetic radioisotopes, the most stable is 93Mo, with a half-life of 4,000 years. The highest oxidation state is seen in molybdenum(VI) oxide (MoO3), whereas the normal sulfur compound is molybdenum disulfide MoS2. As the world supply of crude oil is further extended and low-sulfur crudes become less available, molybdenum-based catalysts will increase in use.

[42] An example is the 'M' series of high-speed steels such as M2, M4 and M42 as substitution for the 'T' steel series, which contain tungsten.

[26] Even when molybdena was distinguishable from graphite, it was still confused with the common lead ore PbS (now called galena); the name comes from Ancient Greek Μόλυβδος molybdos, meaning lead. In its pure form, molybdenum is a silvery-grey metal with a Mohs hardness of 5.5 and a standard atomic weight of 95.95 g/mol.
due to their good strength, mechanical stability, and high ductility. The chart above refers to molybdenum produced from mined ore, not to scrap material recycled by chemical processes or remelting; hence the name "new molybdenum". [40] After the war, demand plummeted until metallurgical advances allowed extensive development of peacetime applications. [19], From the perspective of commerce, the most important compounds are molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3). (VI), (V) and (IV).

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